Information is defined as the solution of uncertainty; it renders the question of “what an entity actually is” void and thus identifies both its nature and essence. The theory of information is widely used in all domains related to knowledge, especially in philosophy, engineering, medicine, business, and other related fields. In fact, the very concepts of information are intimately interrelated with one another and are used together in computer science, physics, astronomy, and so on. The idea of information can have various meanings in diverse contexts. For instance, in the philosophy of science, information is that which is accessible at a physical level, whereas information is that which is available at a logical or social level.
In the field of computer science, information is abstract and characterized by a formal structure (the logical data) and a range of values (such as operation codes). In computer engineering, information is used to specify a particular machine or implement the desired program. In medicine, information is used to cure or treat a patient. In business, information refers to the procedures and processes necessary for conducting business. In astronomy, information refers to the catalog of celestial objects and solar systems. Thus, information science is basically the language of science (or of nature, if you prefer); in other words, it is the language of knowledge.
Information is used throughout our daily lives: it pervades our communication, our economy, and most of our activities. The sheer diversity of the information flows that constitute human activity demonstrates the immense value of information. With the increasing interpenetration of the information systems of the world (particularly the Internet), the value of information has become tantamount to the value of physical reality itself. Hence, the very concepts of information can also be seen as mere cosmological principles – something quite unlike the meaning assigned to the word ‘energy’ or ‘Matter’.